Four types of laser cutting

With the continuous development of science and technology, laser cutting technology is becoming more and more mature. Today, I will introduce the four types of current laser cutting technology.

laser cutting metal


Laser cutting is currently one of the most popular methods of metal processing. Its principle is to irradiate the workpiece with a focused high-power density laser beam to quickly melt, vaporize, ablate or reach the ignition point of the irradiated material. At the same time, it uses the high speed coaxial with the beam. The airflow blows away the molten material, thereby realizing the cutting of metal workpieces.
According to the thermal and physical characteristics of the processed materials and the auxiliary gas characteristics, laser cutting can be divided into four types, namely laser vaporization cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting and laser controlled fracture.

  1. Laser vaporization cutting
    The high-energy and high-density laser beam is used to heat the workpiece, so that the temperature of the cutting material rises rapidly, reaching the boiling point of the material in a short time, skipping the melting step and directly starting to vaporize to form vapor. While the steam is blowing out, a cut is formed in the cut material.
    It is mostly used for cutting extremely thin metal materials and non-metallic materials such as paper, cloth, wood, plastic and rubber. The advantage is that the cutting quality is higher and the material loss is small.
  2. Laser melting and cutting
    The metal material is heated and melted by laser, and inactive gas, such as nitrogen, is blown out through the nozzle coaxial with the beam. The strong pressure of the gas is used to discharge the molten liquid metal. The advantage of laser melting and cutting is that the cutting edge is relatively smooth and general. No need for secondary processing, higher laser energy requirements and higher gas pressure. Suitable for cutting stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and alloy metals.
  3. Laser oxygen cutting
    The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting. It uses laser as the preheating heat source, and uses active gas such as oxygen as the cutting gas. On the one hand, the ejected gas oxidizes with the cutting metal and releases a large amount of oxidation heat; on the other hand, the molten oxide and melt are blown out of the reaction zone to form incisions in the metal. The cutting speed is fast, and it is mainly suitable for cutting carbon steel metal materials.
  4. Four, laser controlled fracture
    Laser controlled fracture is the use of a small laser power to create a steep temperature distribution in the groove, which generates local thermal stress in the brittle material and causes the material to break along the groove. Larger power will cause the surface of the workpiece to melt and destroy the cutting edge. It is mainly suitable for cutting brittle materials such as silicon wafers and glass.

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